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Topics - Alok Pandey

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The opportunity to Indian students and scientists to gain exposure at the world-class research facilities at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Daugherty Water for Food Global Institute but also to three additional universities; Purdue University, Texas Tech University and the University of Idaho.
For more information visit

Announcements / An advertisement for PhD Research Scholars
« on: June 15, 2019, 06:16:26 PM »
An advertisement for PhD research scholars of WSU, Australia to work on Sustainable Management of Ground Water /Springs in Uttarakhand is attached for the interested.

Application close on 31st July 2019.

Thank you Dr. H J Shiva PRASAD (Professor of Civil Engineering, College of Technology, G B Pant University of Agriculture & Technology) for the information.

Programming / List of R Packages for Hydro Research by Sam Zipper
« on: July 20, 2018, 03:42:50 PM »
Sam Zipper( @ZipperSam ) has compiled a list of packages which can be useful in water resources engineering and research.

Twitter Thread :
Link to Doc :

Post your question/information / River Geomorphology Videos
« on: August 07, 2017, 07:55:04 AM »
Little River Research and Design (LRRD) under contract with the Missouri Department of Conservation have produced these videos for educational purpose. Many videos were made using the Emriver movable bed model.

Link :

Abstract :
River piracy—the diversion of the headwaters of one stream into another one—can dramatically change the routing of water and sediment, with a profound effect on landscape evolution. Stream piracy has been investigated in glacial environments, but so far it has mainly been studied over Quaternary or longer timescales. Here we document how retreat of Kaskawulsh Glacier—one of Canada’s largest glaciers—abruptly and radically altered the regional drainage pattern in spring 2016. We use a combination of hydrological measurements and drone-generated digital elevation models to show that in late May 2016, meltwater from the glacier was re-routed from discharge in a northward direction into the Bering Sea, to southward into the Pacific Ocean. Based on satellite image analysis and a signal-to-noise ratio as a metric of glacier retreat, we conclude that this instance of river piracy was due to post-industrial climate change. Rapid regional drainage reorganizations of this type can have profound downstream impacts on ecosystems, sediment and carbon budgets, and downstream communities that rely on a stable and sustained discharge. We suggest that the planforms of Slims and Kaskawulsh rivers will adjust in response to altered flows, and the future Kaskawulsh watershed will extend into the now-abandoned headwaters of Slims River and eventually capture the Kluane Lake drainage.


Daniel H. Shugar, John J. Clague,   James L. Best, Christian Schoof, Michael J. Willis, Luke Copland & Gerard H. Roe

Article Link :

Post your question/information / Hydrological data biases and errors
« on: March 28, 2017, 04:33:00 PM »
Article :

The ‘dirty dozen’ of freshwater science: detecting then reconciling hydrological data biases and errors

Abstract :

Sound water policy and management rests on sound hydrometeorological and ecological data. Conversely, unrepresentative, poorly collected, or erroneously archived data introduce uncertainty regarding the magnitude, rate, and direction of environmental change, in addition to undermining confidence in decision-making processes. Unfortunately, data biases and errors can enter the information flow at various stages, starting with site selection, instrumentation, sampling/measurement procedures, postprocessing and ending with archiving systems. Techniques such as visual inspection of raw data, graphical representation, and comparison between sites, outlier, and trend detection, and referral to metadata can all help uncover spurious data. Tell-tale signs of ambiguous and/or anomalous data are highlighted using 12 carefully chosen cases drawn mainly from hydrology (‘the dirty dozen’). These include evidence of changes in site or local conditions (due to land management, river regulation, or urbanization); modifications to instrumentation or inconsistent observer behavior; mismatched or misrepresentative sampling in space and time; treatment of missing values, postprocessing and data storage errors. Also for raising awareness of pitfalls, recommendations are provided for uncovering lapses in data quality after the information has been gathered. It is noted that error detection and attribution are more problematic for very large data sets, where observation networks are automated, or when various information sources have been combined. In these cases, more holistic indicators of data integrity are needed that reflect the overall information life-cycle and application(s) of the hydrological data.

Link to article :

Post your question/information / Atmospheric Rivers
« on: December 23, 2016, 09:15:26 PM »
Atmospheric Rivers can be defined as narrow corridors of concentrated moisture suspended in the atmosphere. It is also known as rivers in the sky. Scientists found that it was responsible for the mysterious mass die-off of wild Olympia oysters in San Francisco Bay in 2011.

For more information, read the article below.

Title :

Atmospheric rivers and the mass mortality of wild oysters: insight into an extreme future?
Abstract :
Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of extreme events. However, the biological consequences of extremes remain poorly resolved owing to their unpredictable nature and difficulty in quantifying their mechanisms and impacts. One key feature delivering precipitation extremes is an atmospheric river (AR), a long and narrow filament of enhanced water vapour transport. Despite recent attention, the biological impacts of ARs remain undocumented. Here, we use biological data coupled with remotely sensed and in situ environmental data to describe the role of ARs in the near 100% mass mortality of wild oysters in northern San Francisco Bay. In March 2011, a series of ARs made landfall within California, contributing an estimated 69.3% of the precipitation within the watershed and driving an extreme freshwater discharge into San Francisco Bay. This discharge caused sustained low salinities (less than 6.3) that almost perfectly matched the known oyster critical salinity tolerance and was coincident with a mass mortality of one of the most abundant populations throughout this species' range. This is a concern, because wild oysters remain a fraction of their historical abundance and have yet to recover. This study highlights a novel mechanism by which precipitation extremes may affect natural systems and the persistence of sensitive species in the face of environmental change.

Link to the article :
Media report:

In their study titled 'Water Situation in Bengaluru' - published under the ministry of environment & forests' (MoEF's) Environment Information System (ENVIS) in September 2016, it has been reported that as much as 73 per cent of water required by Bengaluru can be obtained from rains alone. The actual demand by the domestic sector is about 20.5 TMC (Thousand Million Cubic feet) per year.

"Way back in 1800, Bengaluru's lakes had a storage capacity of 35 TMC. Our ancestors had built them and interlinked it in such a way that their storage could meet water demand for the next 200-300 years.
However, considering the current status of lakes in and around Bengaluru, they can store only about 5 TMC of water. But over the years, deposition of silt has reduced the storage capacity to a mere 1.2 TMC. There are about 81 lakes in Koramangala valley, followed by 56 in Vrishabhavathi and 46 in Hebbal valley. What is worrying is the considerable increase in built-up area around Bengaluru."

For more details read
News Report :
Technical Report :

Profile of TV Ramachandra

Post your question/information / Cauvery (Kaveri) River Water Dispute
« on: September 27, 2016, 04:17:00 PM »
The sharing of waters of the Cauvery river has been the source of a serious conflict between the two Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The genesis of this conflict rests in two agreements in 1892 and 1924 between the erstwhile Madras Presidency and Princely State of Mysore. The 802 kilometres (498 mi) Kaveri river has 44,000 km2 basin area in Tamil Nadu and 32,000 km2 basin area in Karnataka. Based on inflow Karnataka is demanding a renegotiated settlement based on "equitable sharing of the waters".(more data on pic attached)

The Government of India constituted a tribunal in 1990 to look into the dispute. After hearing arguments of all the parties involved for the next 16 years, the tribunal delivered its final verdict on 5 February 2007.
2007 tribunal verdict
According to verdict, Tamil Nadu gets 419 TMC of Kaveri water while Karnataka gets 270 TMC. The actual release of water by Karnataka to Tamil Nadu is to be 192 TMC annually. Further, Kerala will get 30 TMC and Puducherry 7 TMC.[32] Water to be released to Tamil Nadu according to monthly schedule as: June month (10 TMC), July (34), August (50), September (40), October (22), November (15), December (8 ), January (3), February (2.5), March (2.5), April (2.5) and May (2.5).The Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, unhappy with the decision, filed a revision petition before the tribunal seeking a review.

Article 262 of the Constitution reads as under:
“262. Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or river valleys:
(1)        Parliament may by law provide for the adjudication of any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution or control of the waters of, in any inter-State river or river valley.                                           
(2)        Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, Parliament may, by law, provide that neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall exercise jurisdiction in respect of any such dispute or complaint as is referred to in clause (1)”
[It should be noted that the “dispute” need not be between States, as such].

Act of 1956
(a)        In exercise of the power conferred by article 262 of the Constitution, Parliament has enacted the Inter-State Water Disputes Act, 1956.[viii] Section 3 (and succeeding sections) of the Act contemplate the reference of a “water dispute” to a Tribunal. Section 2(c) of the Act defines “water dispute”, as meaning any dispute or difference between two or more State Governments with reference to the specified matters. However, the word “complaint”, used in article 262 of the Constitution, is not used in the Act of 1956.
(b)        Under the provision of the 1956 Act quoted above, the request to the Central Government has to be made by a State Government. A citizen cannot directly make a “complaint”, - though the Constitution, in article 262, mentions a dispute or a complaint without confining it to a dispute raised or a complaint made by a State Government.

Source of the information :

P.S. Kindly add new information or correct discrepancies if any found. Discussion on this topic is also encouraged.

Book Title :
Observed Climate Variability and Change over the Indian Region

Editors :  Madhavan Rajeevan Nair & Shailesh Nayak

Brief Introduction :
The objective of the book is to make a comprehensive documentation of the observed variability and change of the regional climate system over the Indian region using the past observed data. The book addresses all the important parameters of regional climate system so that a physically consistent view of the changes of the climate system is documented. The book contains 16 chapters written by the subject experts from different academic and research institutes in India. The book addresses all important components/parameters of the climate system, like rainfall, temperature, humidity, clouds, moisture, sea surface temperature and ocean heat content, sea level, glaciers and snow cover, tropical cyclones and monsoon depressions, extreme rainfall and rainstorms, heat waves and cold waves, meteorological droughts, aerosols, atmospheric aerosols, ozone and trace gases and atmospheric radiative fluxes. One chapter deals with the past monsoon using monsoon proxy data. The last chapter deals with the future climate change projections over the Indian region (rainfall and temperature) made using coupled climate models.

Most of the analyses (especially on rainfall, temperature, extreme rainfall, sea surface temperature, meteorological droughts) are based on the data for a longer period of 110 years, 1901–2010. For some other parameters like moisture, clouds, heat waves and cold waves, atmospheric aerosols, ozone and trace gases and radiative fluxes, data of shorter period have been used. The articles documented inter-annual and decadal variability in addition to documenting long term trends of different parameters. The trends have been tested for statistical significance using standard techniques.

It is expected that the present book will be an excellent reference material for researchers as well as for policy makers. These results will be useful in interpreting future climate change scenarios over the region being projected using coupled climate models. Further analysis of these results is required for attributing the observed variability and change to natural and anthropogenic activities.

Source of the information :

Video (by Veritasium) tells us about problems in the research, p-values, significance of published articles, why P-hacking is dangerous to science, and why negative(so called boring) results are really important. I will recommend everyone interested in research activities to watch it.

Important Point :
1. A p-Value is only really valid for single measure. once you compare whole slew of variables the probability that at least on of them gives you a false positive goes way up (known as p-hacking).
2. There is no cost to things getting wrong. The cost is not getting them published.- Prof. Brian Nosek

Link to Video :

Relevant research article :

Post your question/information / Restructuring the CWC and CGWB
« on: August 16, 2016, 02:21:10 PM »
Report titled "A 21st Century Institutional Architecture for India’s Water Reforms: Restructuring the CWC and CGWB" submitted to the Water Resources Ministry by committee led by Mihir Shah(member of the erstwhile Planning Commission) proposes to subsumption of both into a new organization.

The proposed National Water Commission will be a science-led agency to advise the States on how much water they can use without affecting rivers and groundwater, taking surface- and groundwater-usage as a single entity. The CWC, established in 1945, is in charge of surface water and creating storage structures such as dams and medium-scale reservoirs. The Central Ground Water Board is tasked with managing groundwater.

News article (source) :

Other links:

Scientific community rejecting new ideas/research is not new thing. It has happened numerous times in past and may happen in future as well. But the beauty of science is that it speaks for itself, loud and clear.

So enjoy reading the below link. :)

Below is the situation climate scientists may find themselves in while recommending policies based on climate change.
We can learn a lot from this situation.

"Georgia Tech climate scientist Judith Curry testified she has become increasingly concerned the integrity of climate research is being compromised by the politicization of the science. This state of affairs is healthy for neither science nor sound public policy. Curry says there is considerable disagreement about the most consequential issues: whether the warming since the late 1800s has been dominated by human causes versus natural variability, how much the planet will warm in the twenty-first century, and whether warming is “dangerous.” She noted climate scientists making statements about uncertainty or degrees of doubt in the climate debate are labeled as “deniers” whose motives are assumed to be ideological or motivated by funding from the fossil fuel industry. Such ad hominem labeling, she said, results in enormous and unwarranted pressure – from politicians, federal funding agencies, universities, professional societies, and even other scientists – for climate scientists to conform to a so-called consensus dangerous anthropogenic warming is occurring. (Dr. Judith Curry is Professor and former Chair of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology)
For William Happer, a physicist at Princeton and Columbia Universities, the key question is not whether carbon dioxide affects temperature, but rather how sensitive Earth’s temperature is to changes in carbon dioxide levels. Happer, who directed funding to the earliest climate models, testified there are credible estimates the temperature rise we might expect from a doubling of carbon dioxide from pre-industrial levels could be as low as 0.5° Celsius, just a sixth of the sensitivity assumed by most climate models. While the temperature impact of a doubling of carbon dioxide is likely to be small, Happer says the impact on agriculture could be tremendous. Pre-industrial levels of 280 parts per million (ppm) were barely above the 150 ppm threshold below which many plants die from carbon dioxide starvation. Thousands of peer-reviewed studies show almost all plants grow better (and land plants are more drought resistant) at atmospheric carbon dioxide levels two to three times higher than at present. Accordingly, Happer argues, policies limiting carbon dioxide emissions are likely to cause far more harm than good.
The hearing provided several important take-away messages. Two of the most critical ones:
• Politics is corrupting climate science
• Earth is benefiting from, not being harmed by, rising carbon dioxide levels."
-- H. Sterling Burnett

Below are the links to the video :

Dr. Judith Curry 's  testimony:
Judith Curry on NOAA's upward 'adjustments' of temp data :
More Arguments during discussion :

Complete Video and Main Source for the post  :

Comments and Observations on the above topic will be highly appreciated.

Answer is Bayesian Statistical Inference

Keypoints :
Statistics of groups : A basic result in statistics is that there is big difference between properties of a typical "individual" and the properties of an individual in a "typical group".

For more information watch this video : by MinutePhysics

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